segunda-feira, março 26, 2007

Solano Portela

Celebrando 10.03.1557 e a Confissão de Fé da Guanabara


O dia 10 de março marca o dia do primeiro culto evangélico em solo brasileiro (1557). Ele aconteceu com os refugiados huguenotes, que buscavam um lugar no qual tivessem liberdade religiosa de cultuar biblicamente, segundo a teologia redespertada pelo Reforma do Século 16, o soberano Senhor, bem como proclamar a salvação na pessoa de Jesus Cristo.

Foram esses mesmos cristãos corajosos que nos legaram  a Confissão de Fé da Guanabara. Este documento suscita sempre curiosidade e várias perguntas. A primeira surpresa é quanto à sua antiguidade e a verificação de que essa Confissão antecede as nossas mais famosas confissões reformadas históricas, pois foi lavrada no ano 1558.

O outro ponto de curiosidade, é que ela joga luz em um período pouco conhecido de nossa história. Quando eu era criança e, depois, adolescente (faz muito tempo...), estudei bastante sobre o que os nossos livros chamam (ou chamavam) de “Invasão Francesa”. Pouco se falava que em vez de “Invasão” tínhamos um grupo escorraçado, perseguido e atribulado de cristãos reformados franceses, os “huguenotes”, que haviam sido expulsos de sua terra natal pela fé que professavam e ansiavam por um local no qual pudessem gozar da liberdade de cultuar. Em vez de um exército infernal de franceses, esse grupo militarmente mal articulado, era liderado pelo inescrupuloso aventureiro e mercenário Nicolas (ou Nicolau) Durand de Villeigagnon. Simulando uma “conversão” ele procurou organizar a expedição de huguenotes franceses ao Novo Mundo, no que seria a “França Antártica”.

O grupo extremamente misto – no final contava com católicos, huguenotes e vários malfeitores presos “recrutados” para completar o número almejado para a expedição – começou com 600 homens e chegou ao Brasil, após uma sucessão de eventos, com 88, em agosto de 1555.

Nos três anos seguintes, outras expedições vieram, principalmente enviadas por Calvino que atendia aos pedidos de Villegaignon. Ficaram, basicamente, aportados em uma ilha na costa do Rio de Janeiro, na Baía de Guanabara, onde foi construído o Forte Coligny. Assim esse primeiro culto evangélico no solo brasileiro aconteceu com esses huguenotes. Antes de serem confrontados pelos portugueses, em 1560, experimentaram muitos incidentes de trabalho forçado, fugas, escaramuças com os índios (e algumas alianças) e inúmeros conflitos internos.

Nesse meio tempo, Villeigaignon ia mostrando o seu real caráter e ia retornando às práticas católicas. Os huguenotes terminaram separando-se dele. Uma grande parte retornou, em 1558, em um navio francês, mas alguns que ficaram foram hostilizados por Villeigaignon. Receberam várias perguntas, às quais deveriam responder, com questões relacionadas com a sua fé e práticas litúrgicas.

A Confissão de Fé da Guanabara representa essas respostas. Ela não é, portanto, um tratado completo e sistemático de teologia, mas é específica e direcionada às questões da época. Obviamente, no que diz respeito à fé e à salvação, expressa princípios bíblicos e eternos. Foi redigida por Jean Du Bourdel, por ser o mais letrado dentre eles. Villeigagnon, irado porque os subscritores se recusavam a abjurar a Confissão, mandou matar três homens. São os chamados “mártires da Guanabara”.

A história detalhada desse período, com todos os seus componentes eclesiásticos, que geralmente ficam de fora, bem como com o texto completo da Confissão de Fé da Guanabara, em português, pode ser visto no excelente artigo do Franklin Ferreira (FIDES – A Presença dos Reformados Franceses no Brasil Colonial), que poder ser acessado no site do Felipe Sabino www.monergismo.com, clicando aqui.

Solano Portela, celebrando 10.03.1557

Solano Portela

Postado por Solano Portela.

Sobre os autores:

Dr. Augustus Nicodemus (@augustuslopes) é atualmentepastor da Primeira Igreja Presbiteriana de Goiânia, vice-presidente do Supremo Concílio da Igreja Presbiteriana doBrasil e presidente da Junta de Educação Teológica da IPB.

O Prof. Solano Portela prega e ensina na Igreja Presbiteriana de Santo Amaro, onde tem uma classe dominical, que aborda as doutrinas contidas na Confissão de Fé de Westminster.

O Dr. Mauro Meister (@mfmeister) iniciou a plantação daIgreja Presbiteriana da Barra Funda.

10 comentários

comentários
26/3/07 10:08 delete

Solano,

Parabéns pelo post e muito obrigado por ter elucidado esse período importante da nossa história nacional e eclesiástica. A Confissão da Guanabara coloca o Brasil -- ainda que ela não tenha sido escrita por brasileiros -- no circuito das confissões reformadas. Mais um incentivo ao desafio de vermos um Brasil influenciado pelos princípios da Reforma.

Um abraço.

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silvia
AUTOR
26/3/07 11:32 delete

Excelente texto presbítero Solano! Também em minha jornada estudantil ouvia sobre as "invasões francesas e holandesas" nas aulas de história! Hoje como professora tenho o prazer de ensinar a versão correta.

Show de bola o texto do rev. Franklin! Já tinha tido uma aula sobre a presença de reformadores franceses com o rev. Alderi que deixou as aula dos meus professores de história do colégio no "chão".

Apenas uma correção(se não tiver equivocada): o primeiro culto protestante foi em 10 de março de 1557 (450 anos). A santa ceia que foi celebrada no dia 21.

[]s

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26/3/07 14:55 delete

Caro Augustus:

Obrigado pelo comentário. Realmente, pouco conhecemos sobre este período, mas o artigo do Franklin é muito bom.

Cara Sílvia:
Obrigado. Como eu disse acima, o texto do Franklin deveria ser leitura obrigatória a todos os estudantes de história e, mais ainda, aos evangélicos brasileiros. Já corrigi a informação. De fato, no dia 21 foi a primeira comunhão em solo brasileiro.

Abs

Solano

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Flávia
AUTOR
26/3/07 16:11 delete

Saudações cristãs.
Prezado Solano, na biblioteca virtual da USP é disponibilizado uma série denominada a "Quarta Parte do Mundo", com um episódio denominado "A França Antártica -
Documentário sobre o sonho de Calvino de construir uma colônia no Brasil para quebrar o monopólio católico sobre o Novo Mundo". Até assistir este documentário só conhecia a história ensinada nos meus tempos de escola, procurarei conhecer melhor a partir da indicação em seu Blog.
Abraços a todos da família.
Flávia Cavalcanti Kaveski
ps - congregei com o presbitero na IPF e na 1a.IP do Recife, além de ter sido sua aluna tanto na EBD como IPVNe.

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Anônimo
AUTOR
26/3/07 21:41 delete

Não precisa publicar.

O nosso país passa por um momento ímpar. Está para ser votada no Congresso uma Lei Anti-Homofobia, que se for aprovada, será a instituição da Heterofobia.

Gostaria de ler aqui no Blog algum artigo sobre o assunto. Vocês são bem mais capazes de analisar do que a média dos analistas.

Se houver algum problema. Contatem comigo:

joaodeca.mendes@bol.com.br


Rev. João d'Eça.

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Márcio
AUTOR
26/3/07 23:02 delete

Distinto Presb. Solano,

Além da sua oportuna contribuição com o presente texto e a do exímio pesquisador Franklin Ferreira, vale a pena trazer à lembrança a exaustiva pesquisa do Rev. Folton, cuja dissertação defendida no Andrew Jumper (1998) versou sobre AS PRINCIPAIS DOUTRINAS DA CONFISSÃO DE FÉ DA GUANABARA (título da pesquisa).

Abraço.

Márcio

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Anônimo
AUTOR
27/3/07 17:10 delete

Muito bom o texto Pb.Solano, aproveito para informar que a CPAD(Casa Pubicadora das Assembléias de Deus)relançou o ano passado o livro de 1917 cujo o autor é Jean Crespin cujo o titulo é "A Tragédia da Guanabara" sobre a confissão de guanabara e os seus martires este é o link do livro

http://www.cpad.com.br/dep/2263-1.html

Este é o outro link do mesmo só que em português antigo.
http://www.thirdmill.org/files/portuguese/40525~9_18_01_3-59-21_PM~A_Trag%C3%A9dia_de_Guanabara.html

Fraternalmente em Cristo,

Franciney R. da Silva

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29/3/07 20:23 delete

Várias pessoas têm me pedido que eu poste a tradução para o inglês da Confissão de Fé da Guanabara. Aqui vai ela, neste espaço reservado a comentários. - Solano

The Guanabara Confession of Faith was the first Protestant writing in the Americas (1558), and it is one of the first reformed confessions.

It was written by the French Huguenots Jean du Bourdel, Matthieu Verneuil, Pierre Bourdon e André la Fon, who were taken under arrest by Villegaignon, in Brazil, answering some specific points given to them in writing. Within 12 hours after this confession was written, its authors were hanged. The authors knew they were writing and signing their own death sentence.

The Confession of Guanabara:

According to the doctrine of St. Peter, the apostle, in his first letter, all Christians must be ready to give an answer of the hope that they possess, with all meekness and benevolence; we, the undersigned, Mr. Villegaignon, unanimously (according to the measure of grace upon un bestowed by the Lord), are giving an answer, point by point, as you have thus requested and ordained, beginning with the first article:

I. We believe in one God, immortal, invisible, creator of heaven and earth, and of all things, visible and invisible, who is identified in three persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit; who constitute nothing else but a same substance in essence, eternal and of a same will; The Father, source and beginning of all good; The Son, eternally generated by the Father, who, in accomplishment of the fullness of time, manifested himself in the flesh to the world, being conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of the Virgin Mary, made under the Law to rescue those that were under it, in order that we could be received by adoption as their own sons; The Holy Spirit, proceeding from the Father and the Son, master of all truth, speaking through the mouths of the prophets, suggesting the things that were said by our Lord Jesus Christ to the Apostles. This is the only comforter in affliction, imparting steadfastedness and perseverance in all good.
We believe that it is necessary worship solely, and perfectly love, cry to and call upon the majesty of God in faith, and in a personal manner.

II. Worshiping our Lord Jesus Christ, we are not separating one nature from the other, but confess both natures, namely: the inseparable divine and human natures.

III. We believe, as to the Son of God and as to the Holy Spirit, that which the Word of God and the Apostolic doctrine and the symbol teach us.

IV. We believe that the Lord Jesus Christ will come to judge the living and the dead, in a visible and human form, as he ascended to heaven, executing such judgment in the form which has been predicted in the 25th chapter of Matthew; and the that Father has given Him, being man, all power to judge.
And concerning what we say in our prayers, that the Father will come at last in the Person of the Son, we understand, with that, that the power of the Father, given to the Son, will be manifested in this judgment; nevertheless we do not want to confuse the persons, knowing that they are distinct one from another.

V. We believe in the holy sacrament of the Supper, as corporal figures of bread and wine, and that the faithful souls are actually fed with the very substance of our Lord Jesus, as our bodies are fed by food; thus, we do not understand the saying that the bread and wine are actually transformed or transubstantiated in their body, because the bread continues with its nature and substance; likewise the wine, there is no change or alteration.
We differentiate, nevertheless, this bread and wine from other bread and wine dedicated to the common usage, understanding that these are, for us, a sacramental sign, under which truth is infallibly receive. The reception of this truth, however, is not possible except by faith, and in it is not proper to imagine anything carnal, nor prepare the teeth to eat, as we learn from Saint Augustine, when he says: “Why do you prepare the teeth and the stomach? Believe, and you have eaten it.”
The sign, therefore, does not give us the truth nor the signified thing; but our Lord Jesus Christ, by His power, virtue and goodness, feed and preserves our souls and makes them share in His own flesh and blood, and of all its benefits.
Let us see the interpretation of the words of Jesus Christ: “This is my body;” Tertulian, in his fourth book “Against Marcion”, explains these words as such: “this is the signal and the figure of my body.”
St. Augustine says: “The Lord didn’t avoid saying – This is my body, when he was merely giving a sign of his body.”
Therefore (as it is ordained in the first canon of the Nicean Council), in this holy sacrament, we shouldn’t imagine anything fleshly, nor distract ourselves with the bread and wine, which are in them proposed as signs, but lift our spirits to heaven so that we can contemplate, by faith, the Son of God, our Lord Jesus, who sits at the right hand of God, His Father.
In this sense we could subscribe to the article of Ascension, alongside many other statements of Saint Augustine, which we are omitting for we fear they are to lengthy.

VI. We believe that if it would be necessary to add water to the wine, the gospel writers and Saint Paul wouldn’t have omitted such an important matter.
And as what the earlier doctors have observed (concerning the blood mixed with water that flowed from Jesus Christ’s side, considering that such an observance has no basis on Scripture, seeing that this happened even after the institution of the Lord’s Supper), we cannot necessarily admit this practice today.

VII. We believe that there is no other consecration except that which is performed by the minister, when he celebrates communion, when he addresses the people, in a known tongue, the literal institution of this Supper, as per the form prescribed by the Lord Jesus Christ himself, admonishing the people as to the death and passion of our Lord. And even as it is taught by St. Augustine, consecration is the word of faith that it is preached and received in faith. Therefore, it follows that the words secretly pronounced about the signs cannot be their consecration, as it appears from the institution that our Lord left to His Apostles, speaking is words to His disciples who were there, present, whom he ordered to take and eat.

VIII. The Holy Sacrament of the Supper is not food for the body as it is for the souls (for we cannot conceive anything fleshly about them, as we declared in the fifth article) which receives them by faith, which is not carnal.

IX. We believe that the baptism is a sacrament of penance, and as an entry into the Church of God, so that we can be incorporated in Jesus Christ. It represents to us the remission of all our sins, past and future, which is solely fully acquired through the death of our Lord Jesus.
Moreover, the mortification of our flesh is there represented, and the washing, represented by the water sprinkled on the child, is the sign and seal of the blood of our Lord Jesus, who is the true purification of our souls. Its institution is taught to us in the Word of God, which the saints have observed, using the water in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. As to exorcisms, abjurations of Satan, confirmation, spit and salt, we record these as traditions of men, and we are pleased, only, with the form and institution left by our Lord Jesus.

X. As to free will, we believe that the first man, created at the Image of God, had freedom and will, both to do good as well as evil. Only he knew what was free will, for he was in his full abilities. Nevertheless, he didn’t even kept this gift of God, as well as it was taken away from him on account of his sin, and to all that descend from him, in such a way that no one from the seed of Adam has a spark of good.
For this reason, Saint Paul says, the natural man does not understand the things of God. And Hosea cry to the children of Israel: “Thy has fallen by thine iniquity.” And we understand that this is true about the man that is not regenerated by the Holy Spirit.
As to the Christian man, baptized in the blood of Jesus Christ, who walks in newness of life, our Lord Jesus Christ restitutes to him free will, and reforms his will for all good works; nevertheless, not in perfection, for the performing of good will is not in his power, but comes from God, as fully this holy Apostle declares, in the seventh chapter of Romans, saying: “but to will is present with me, but to perform that which is good, I find not.”
The man predestined to eternal life, even though he sins on account of his human frailty, nevertheless he cannot fall into impenitence.
Speaking about this St. John says that he does not sin because election remains in him.

XI. We believe that forgiveness of sins belongs only to the Word of God, of which, says St. Ambrose, man is just the minister; therefore, if he condemns or absolves, is not him, but that which is announced by the Word of God.
St. Augustine, in this area, says that it is not by merits of men that sins are forgiven, but by virtue of the Holy Spirit. For the Lord said to his apostles: “Receive ye the Holy Spirit,” and he adds: “whosoever sins you remit, they are remitted unto them, etc.”
Cyprian says that a servant cannot forgive an offense against the Lord.

XII. As to imposition of hands, this has served its time, and there is no need of preserving it now, for through imposition of hands one cannot bestow the Holy Spirit, for the belongs only to God.
As to ecclesiastical orders, we believe that which has been written by St. Paul in the first letter to Timothy and in other places.

XIII. The separation between man and woman legitimately united by marriage cannot be done, except on account of adultery, as it is taught by our Lord (Mathew 19:5). And not only this is cause for separation, but also, with the cause properly examined by authorities, the non-guilty party, if cannot contain himself, should marry, as it is taught by St. Ambrose, on the seventh chapter of the first letter of Corinth. The authority, however, must proceed in this matter maturely counseling.

XIV. St. Paul, when teaching that the overseer must be husband of one wife, is not saying that another marriage is not proper, but he is condemning bigamy, which attracted many, those days; nevertheless, we will leave the concluding judgment on this matter to ones better knowledgeable on the Holy Scripture, and we will not base our opinion in this matter solely on our faith.

XV. It is not right to vow a promise to God, unless it is that which he approves. In this way the monastic vows tend to corrupt the true service to God. It is also a fearful thing the presumption of man to vow something beyond the measure of his calling, seeing that Scripture teaches us that continence is a special gift (Mathew 15 and 1 Corinthians 7). Therefore, it follows that those that impose themselves this necessity, renouncing matrimony throughout all his life, cannot be excused of extreme temerity and excessive and insolent confidence in themselves.
And through this mean, they tempt God, considering that the gift of continence is, in some, merely temporal, and that which is temporal does not last throughout a whole life. Thus, monks, priests, and others who oblige themselves to live in chastity, tempt God, for it is not in themselves to fulfill what they have promised. St. Cyprian, in his chapter eleven, says: “If virgins dedicate themselves in good will to Christ, they persevere in chastity without defect; if they so remain, strong ant constant, they can expect the reward prepared for their virginity; if they do not want or cannot persevere in their vow, it is better for them to marry than to be thrown in the fire of luxury, on account of its pleasures and delights.” As to the passage written by St. Paul, it is true that the widows separated to take care of the church, would submit to a vow of not marrying again while they would be connected to those duties; not because this would impart them, or because it would be attributed to them, any holiness, but because they would not be able to perform those duties, if they were married; and, if they felt like marrying, they should renounce that calling to which God had attracted them; nevertheless, fulfilling the promises made in the church, without braking the promises made at baptism, in which this is inserted: “Every one should serve God in the place where he has been called.” Widows, therefore, didn’t vow continence, for marriage was unbecoming to their duties, and they had no other choice but to observe that. They were not so constrained to the point that they were forbidden to marry and burn themselves, falling into infamy or dishonesty.
But, to avoid such inconvenience, the Apostle St. Paul, in the aforementioned chapter, forbids that they be received to vow such vows unless they reached sixty years of age, which is an age generally considered outside of the incontinence bracket. And he adds that the elect should be married only once, so as in this manner, receive already an approval of continence.

XVI. We believe that Jesus Christ is our only Mediator, intercessor and advocate, by whom we have access to the Father, and that, justified by his blood, we will be free from death; and by him reconciled we will have full victory against death.
As to the saints who died, we say that they desire our salvation and the fulfillment of the Kingdom of God, and that the number of elect is completed; nevertheless, we must not direct ourselves to them, as intercessors to obtain something, because we would be disobeying the commandment of God. As to us, the living, while we are united as members of one body, we should pray one for another, as we are taught by many passages of Scriptures.

XVII. As to the dead, St. Paul, in the first letter to the Thessalonians, in its forth chapter, forbids us to morn for them, for this is a pagan costume, who have no hope of a resurrection. The Apostle does not command nor teach to pray for them, something which he wouldn’t have forgotten, if it would be convenient. St. Augustine, speaking about Psalm 48, says that the spirits of the dead receive according to what they have done in life; and that if they haven’t done anything, and are still living, they will receive nothing, when dead.

This is the answer that we give to the articles that we have received from you, according to the measure and proportion of faith, which God has given us, praying that he may be pleased that this faith may not be found dead in us, but bearing fruits worthy of its children, and that we may grow and persevere in it, so that we will render praises and thanksgiving to him forever.

Amen.

Jean du Bourdel, Matthieu Verneuil, Pierre Bourdon, André la Fon.

More about the story of the French Huguenots in Brazil, in the Englsh language, can be found in:
The Martyrs of Guanabara, by John Gillies
ISBN: 9780802451873
ISBN10: 080245187X
Published: Moody Press
Publish Date: 1976
Edition: Illustrated
Pages: 174

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Anônimo
AUTOR
1/4/07 07:02 delete

Presb Solano

Informe algum ou alguns links sobre a história da igreja reformada holandesa no Nordeste

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1/4/07 10:34 delete

Caro Anônimo:

O maior documento sobre este período é o Livro do Rev. Francisco (Frans) Leonardo (Leonard) Schalkwijk, o qual você provavelmente já conhece: “A Igreja e Estado no Brasil Holandês”
(veja: http://www.pernambuco.com/diario/2003/12/22/especialholandesesf256_0.html) –

Em português (Editora Cultura Cristã): http://www.amx.com.br/_model1/produto.asp?produto=CEP-0405&emp=cep&cor=cor3&bg1=

Em Inglês (Calvin Seminary): http://www.godutch.com/catalogue/bookN.asp?id=628

Artigos do Rev. Frans Leonard, sobre o período:
http://www2.uol.com.br/historiaviva/conteudo/materia/materia_12.html
http://www.longoalcance.com.br/brecife/calabar/index.html
http://www.mackenzie.com.br/teologia/fides/ensaios/as_lagrimas.htm

Documento, com tradução em português:
http://www.irwanderley.eng.br/GasparIgreja/ActaClassis1641_ing.pdf


Artigos de outros:
http://sti.br.inter.net/cvricas/Pesquisa/BrasilProt.htm
http://www.fundaj.gov.br/notitia/servlet/newstorm.ns.presentation.NavigationServlet?publicationCode=16&pageCode=236&textCode=6090&date=currentDate

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